Steps to Modern Thought
to think about man's life on earth
*the power of the Catholic Church starts to decrease
Church's authority is challenged by Luther, Calvin & others
*People start to think about an individual's relationship
*People begin to read the Bible on their own
3. Scientific Revolution
*scientists use logic, reason, human
mental ability to solve problems
*universe is viewed as a machine
*people tried to predict outcomes (results) based
on logical thinking & observation
*philosophers use scientific methods (logic, reason, observation,
etc) to look at human behavior
*use scientific methods to solve human problems and create ideal situations (eg - what kind
of government is the best?)
Scientific Revolution Notes (9/2012)
Rene Descartes (deductive reasoning) – Discourses on Method
Too many laws
lead to confusion, so a country is best guided by only a few laws. I use only 4 rules of logic which work well for me.
Never believe something is true unless I know it for certain.
2. Divide problems into as many manageable small parts as possible.
Start with easy & work way to most complex till I’ve solved the problem.
4. Will keep complete notes so
I won’t forget anything.
rules are the same in geometry; it is a good example. So, stop blindly accepting as truth things that people are unsure about
& investigate all problems using a step-by-step method to allow deduction of one truth from another.
to Scientific Method:
Gather info on problem.
Organize and order collected info.
4. Create a hypothesis/solution based on gathered info.
5. Draw deductions
Check truth of hypothesis/solution.
Francis Bacon (inductive reasoning) – Magna Instauratio
People who are content with the present are not making plans for the
future. Books nowadays say nothing new, only old/same stuff over & over. Knowledge of science hasn’t progressed
at all. No new answers or questions, even in academics. People, only a few, do conduct experiments, but don’t have a
set step-by-step standard. People rely on old books rather than own intellect. People should record only carefully designed
experiments. Facts should prove all hypotheses true or false.
Francis Bacon Reading:
Rene Descartes Reading:
Notes on the Enlightenment, 9/5-6/07:
Enlightenment = Age of Reason
during 1700s/ 18th century
John Locke -
people can govern themselves
natural rights = life, liberty, & property
Baron de Montesquieu -
every government is valid
constitutional monarchy vs. absolute monarchy
GB vs. Fr
checks & balances
3 branches of government = executive, legislative & judicial
Thomas Hobbes -
people are mean, warlike, brutish, can't run own lives
John Jacques Rousseau -
the General Will = rule of the majority
freedom from censorship, of religion, of speech
Notes on the Enlightenment 9/7/07-
gov't should not interfere with business or trade
supply and demand
Wealth of Nations
Vindocation of the Rights of Women
women are equal ot men
women should be educated
doaughter Mary Shelley wrote Frankenstein
Enlightenment (Section 1.2) deals with:
Enlightened ideas spread via books and salons
Enlightened Despots are - Frederick II of Prussia, Catherine the Great of Russia and Joseph II
Social/Cultural Trends - music, art & serfs