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This Chapter covers the growth of democracy in Athens, Rome and England. It also looks at how the concept of government formed from religious, cultural and societal needs. This chapter lays the groundwork for our entire year of study - how democracy develops throughout world history.
Our mini-test for 2012 will be on September 14 and consist of 25 multiple choice questions. Extra credit will be the review game.

Notes from 9/8/11:
These Notes describe why societies and civilizations need governments. They also look at where civilizations first started.
Notes from 9/5/08:
Athens was birthplace of European democracy. Utilized direct democracy. Was only applicable to male citizens (not slaves or women). Included trial by jury.
Roman Republic was the birthplace of a bicameral legislature with the Assembly of Plebes & senate. Utilizes republic or indirect democracy. has co-consuls. Twelve Tables establish one of first written constitutions. trial by jury with "innocent till proven guilty."
Res Republica Chart from 9/13/11
See "Chronology of democracy" overhead for more info.
Notes from 9/10/09:
See a Venn Diagram of Compare/Contrasts between Judaism, Christianity & Islam prepared by a World History student this year. This diagram was based on a reading of the ten Commandments from the Torah, the Bible and the Quran. Bravo!
Notes from 9/16/11
Notes from 9/2012:
The Renaissance

The Renaissance PowerPointŪ Presentation was created some years ago and recently updated.  Due to its large size, it has been broken up into five parts (Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, & Part 5).  Hopefully the music links will work; if not, please visit the Internet Renaissance Band's site for example of the period's music.                  

Students who have misplaced their handouts can print another copy from the presentation by printing out the actual slides from this presentation. See Mrs. Fine if you have difficulty.

The PowerPoint Viewer is available as a feee download, if you are interested from the www.microsoft.com site.



Notes from 8/25/06 - Middle Ages vs. Renaissance

  • Middle Ages = 476c.e. – 1400s
  • Renaissance = 1300s-1600s
  • Reformation (Protestants split from Catholic Church under Martin Luther) 1500s-1600s
  • Counter-Reformation (Catholic Church “reforms” self to bring back parishioners & income) 1500s-1600s
  • Age of Exploration (Europeans take over New World) 1400s-1600s
  • Scientific Revolution (observation & experimentation forma basis of knowledge, not faith) 1500s-1600s

Comparison Chart of artistic values used in class http://daphne.palomar.edu/mhudelson/StudyGuides/MidAgesRen_WA.html (8/15/2006)


Comparison chart of societal values used in class http://www2.una.edu/dburton/MAvsRen.htm (8/15/2006)

Notes from 9/13/04
Renaissance covers 15th-16th century
  • 2 Movements - Italian & Northern (know the difference between both)
  • also Elizabethan Movement centered in England, but that was mostly focusing on drama with Shakespeare
  • know major artists, artwork & styles (art ID on test)
  • Focuses on reality (look to self for improving lot in life, not G-d) rather than morality of Middle Ages (look to priests & G-d for moral guidance, focus on christian religion)
  • Revives classical (Greek & Roman) learning - promotes reason and experience as guides for beliefs, not religious faith
  • Focuses on humans - the body is beautiful


  • wrote The Prince
  • excerpt focuses on a Prince's finances & qualities of leadership
  • "liberality" = generosity
  • "niggardliness" = cheapness, miserliness
  • good idea to go through vocab first, then read excerpt, then answer questions & hand in for credit
  • keep in mind that Machiavelli focuses on a Renaissance prince's need for practicality - he must appear to be free with money, yet save for a rainy day; he must be ready to change alliances for the betterment of his people; the people must be controlled, yet kept happy and riot free.

Other Suggested Reading

If you find that you are interested in the Renaissance, you may be interested in the following books for either pleasure or book reports for English (some of these are nonfiction):

  • Dan Brown's The Da Vinci Code  
  • Machiavelli's The Prince
  • Ross King's Brunelleschi's Dome
  • Cellini's Autobiography
  • Manchester's A World Lit by Fire (This book also explores the Reformation and the Age of Exploration, and is required summer reading for AP European History)
  • Georgio Vasari's The Lives of the Artists


Review Chapter Study Guide








Athens, 6th-5th century BCE



Direct democracy





Natural laws

Republic, 6th-1st century BCE


Roman law

Code of Justinian








Ten Commandments


Jesus of Nazareth





Muhammad, 8th century CE


6 Pillars

Monotheistic Religion

Roman Catholic Church

Renaissance, 14th-16th century CE

Renaissance Art (see PowerPoint)

Reformation, 16th century CE


Martin Luther

Henry II of England


Common law

Magna Carta, 1215

King John of England

Due process of law


Model Parliament

House of Commons

House of Lords

Divine right of kings

James I of Great Britain

Charles I of Great Britain

Petition of Right

Oliver Cromwell

Commonwealth of England


Habeas Corpus

Glorious Revolution, 1689

William III & Mary II of Great Britain

Constitutional monarchy

English Bill of Rights

Copyright 2003-2011, Ann-Marie Fine.  All Rights reserved.
Last Revised, September 2011.